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Permanent makeup is relatively recent fad (although there are some ideas that it is much older).It is a form of tattooing that replaces the need to apply classic makeup or it is used to rectify imperfections like a loss of pigment or scars. Read about history of permanent makeup.
Corneal tattooing is done for medical reasons but a tattooing of the eye can be done for esthetic reasons too. It is not a fail-safe procedure but it can help people if successful. Read about history of corneal tattooing.
Body painting is an ancient practice and people from thousand years ago painted themselves for hunting and their religious rituals. Today it is a form of art that uses human body as a canvas. Read about history of body painting.
To have a nice image on your body you don't have to suffer the pain and, in some cases, you don't even have to lose a lot of time. That is what temporary tattoos are for. Here you can read more about tattooing with ballpoint pen and other temporary tattoos.